The process of arranging shapes and forms
into a unified whole for artistic expression.
ELEMENTS- "The ingredients"
Line | Shape | Form | Color | Texture | Space | Value
PRINCIPLES- "The recipe"
Unity - Harmony | Balance | Rhythm - Repetition | Contrast
Emphasis Variety | Movement
Victor Lowenfeld's Stages of Artistic Development
(2 to 4 years)
The Scribble stage is made up of four sub-stages. (a) Disordered - uncontrolled
markings that could be bold or light depending upon the personality of the child.
At this age the child has little or no control over motor activity. (b)Longitudinal - controlled
repetitions of motions. Demonstrates visually an awareness and enjoyment of kinesthetic movements.
Circular - further exploring of controlled motions demonstrating the ability to do more complex forms.
Naming - the child tells stories about the scribble. There is a change from a kinesthetic thinking in terms of
motion to imaginative thinking in terms of pictures. This is one of the great occasions in the life of a human.
It is the development of the ability to visualize in pictures.
(4 to 6 years)
The preschematic stage is announced by the appearance of circular images with lines which seem to suggest
a human or animal figure. During this stage the schema (the visual idea) is developed. The drawings show what
the child perceives as most important about the subject. There is little understanding of space - objects are placed in a haphazard way throughout the picture. The use of color is more emotional than logical.
(7 to 9 years)
This stage is easily recognized by the demonstrated awareness of the concept of space. Objects in the drawing have a relationship to what is up and what is down. A definite base and sky line is apparent. Items in the drawing are all spatially related. Colors are reflected as they appear in nature. Shapes and objects are easily definable. Exaggeration between figures (humans taller than a house, flowers bigger than humans, family members large and small) is often used to express strong feelings about a subject. Another technique sometimes used is called "folding over" this is demonstrated when objects are drawn perpendicular to the base line. Sometimes the objects appear to be drawn upside down. Another Phenomenon is called "X-ray". In an x-ray picture the subject is depicted as being seen form the inside as well as the outside.
(9 to 11 years)
Dawining realism is also known as the gang age. Group friendships of the same sex are most common. This is a period of self awareness to the point of being extremely self critical. The attempts at realism need to be looked at from the child's point of view. Realism is not meant to be real in the photographic sense rather than an experience with a particular object. In this regard this stage is the first time that the child becomes aware of a lack of ability to show objects the way they appear in the surrounding environment. The human is shown as girl, boy, woman, man clearly defined with a feeling for details often resulting in a "stiffness" of representation. Perspective is another characteristic of this stage. There is an awareness of the space between the base line and sky line. Overlapping of objects, types of point perspective and use of small to large objects are evident in this stage. Objects no longer stand on a base line. Three dimensional effects are achieved along with shading and use of subtle color combinations. Because of an awareness of lack of ability drawings often appear less spontaneous than in previous stages.
THE PSEUDOREALISTIC STAGE
(11 to 13 years)
In the previous stages the process in making the visual art was of great importance. In this stage the product becomes most important to the child. This stage is marked by two psychological differences. In the first, called Visual, the individual's art work has the appearance of looking at a stage presentation. The work is inspired by visual stimuli. The second is based on subjective experiences. This type of Nonvisual individual's art work is based on subjective interpretations emphasizing emotional relationships to the external world as it relates to them. Visual types feel as spectators looking at their work form the outside. Nonvisually minded individuals feel involved in their work as it relates to them in a personal way. The visually minded child has a visual concept of how color changes under different external conditions. The nonvisually minded child sees color as a tool to be used to reflect emotional reaction to the subject at hand.
Note:The above is a brief summary of the subject, for more information
refer to the following book - Creative and Mental Growth Viktor Lowenfeld, Macmillan Co., New York, 1947.
Barb Reser Observations
Everyone makes aesthetic judgments every day (what to wear, how to decorate home, choice of car, etc.). Many of our aesthetic judgments are based on INTUITION. SATURATE yourself with art. Really LOOK at your surroundings.
(Go to galleries, museums, etc. and look at art books and websites).
TIME and a little INTEREST is all you need to enjoy participating in art activities.
A GOOD ARTWORK CONSIDERS THE WHOLE PAGE. Art is FUN. Everything is an EXPERIMENT. We LEARN by trying.
Most people are more creative than they think they are. Don’t expect to create a MASTERPIECE the first time. Practice, practice, practice.
MATERIALS & SUPPLIES:
You can pay $.30 for a brush, or you can pay $200 for a brush. I use garage sale items to do art and teach art, but also find that quality materials help.
A SKETCHBOOK is a journal. It is visual nourishment and a plan for future projects.
Artistic TALENT is not needed to enjoy artmaking.
Use PERSONAL IMAGES to express yourself in art.
The LANGUAGE of visual art speaks in ways words can’t. Do RESEARCH to gather REFERENCE MATERIAL.
ARTMAKING IS SIMPLE, BUT NOT EASY.
GIVE THE ARTIST IN YOU PERMISSION TO UNFOLD.
THERE IS NO RIGHT OR WRONG WAY TO PROJECT YOUR IDEAS IN ART. IT'S A PERSONAL MATTER.
Tips & Tricks
Still Life | Portrait | Landscape | Non-Objective
There is no ONE Definition of ART. A WORK OF ART is a visible form of expression of human experience.
Draw what you SEE not what you know is there
Really LOOK at your reference material.
Hold your pencil / brush at arm's length vertically. The tip of your thumb to the tip of the pencil /brush is a unit of measure. See what else on your reference
material is the same unit length.
See what point / shape is directly above or below another.
See what point / shape is directly across from another.
See what point / shape is
diagonal from another.
See what shapes are between objects.
If you can draw these forms, you can draw anything
GRIDS can help when enlarging an artwork.
Look for SHAPES and FORMS.
PROPORTIONS OF THE FACE
Principles of Design
Unity - Harmony | Balance | Rhythm - Repetition
Contrast | Emphasis Variety | Movement
CENTER OF INTEREST
The Rule of Thirds
Divide the paper equally in thirds in each direction. The areas of intersecting lines are considered pleasing areas for placement
of the focal point.
Exaggerate lights and darks for contrast
THE COLOR WHEEL
Complements are the opposite colors on the color wheel.
Try a complementary color for shading instead of black.
Tone - Add White
Shade - Add compliment or black.
A sketch of color so that the white canvas/paper is not so intimidating. (It can even be done with a rag. Just cover the surface.)
For unity in a painting, use what is left on your brush somewhere on an opposite area of your canvas.
Every artist sets up their palettes a little differently.
Barb sets up her palette by distributing the colors that will be used (called the local color), plus a form of the primary colors and white.